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Next: 5. Performance Up: Scalable, Distributed Data Structures Previous: 3. Assumptions and Design


4. Distributed Hash Tables: Architecture and Implementation

In this section, we present the architecture and implementation of a distributed hash table DDS. Figure 2 illustrates our hash table's architecture, which consists of the following components:

Client: a client consists of service-specific software running on a client machine that communicates across the wide area with one of many service instances running in the cluster. The mechanism by which the client selects a service instance is beyond the scope of this work, but it typically involves DNS round robin [7], a service-specific protocol, or level 4 or level 7 load-balancing switches on the edge of the cluster. An example of a client is a web browser, in which case the service would be a web server. Note that clients are completely unaware of DDS's: no part of the DDS system runs on a client.

Figure: Distributed hash table architecture: each box in the diagram represents a software process. In the simplest case, each process runs on its own physical machine, however there is nothing preventing processes from sharing machines.
\epsfbox[19 148 519 587]{dds_arch.eps} }

Service: a service is a set of cooperating software processes, each of which we call a service instance. Service instances communicate with wide-area clients and perform some application-level function. Services may have soft state (state which may be lost and recomputed if necessary), but they rely on the hash table to manage all persistent state.

Hash table API: the hash table API is the boundary between a service instance and its ``DDS library''. The API provides services with put(), get(), remove(), create(), and destroy() operations on hash tables. Each operation is atomic, and all services see the same coherent image of all existing hash tables through this API. Hash table names are strings, hash table keys are 64 bit integers, and hash table values are opaque byte arrays; operations affect hash table values in their entirety.

DDS library: the DDS library is a Java class library that presents the hash table API to services. The library accepts hash table operations, and cooperates with the ``bricks'' to realize those operations. The library contains only soft state, including metadata about the cluster's current configuration and the partitioning of data in the distributed hash tables across the ``bricks''. The DDS library acts as the two-phase commit coordinator for state-changing operations on the distributed hash tables.

Brick: bricks are the only system components that manage durable data. Each brick manages a set of network-accessible single node hash tables. A brick consists of a buffer cache, a lock manager, a persistent chained hash table implementation, and network stubs and skeletons for remote communication. Typically, we run one brick per CPU in the cluster, and thus a 4-way SMP will house 4 bricks. Bricks may run on dedicated nodes, or they may share nodes with other components.

4.1 Partitioning, Replication, and Replica Consistency

A distributed hash table provides incremental scalability of throughput and data capacity as more nodes are added to the cluster. To achieve this, we horizontally partition tables to spread operations and data across bricks. Each brick thus stores some number of partitions of each table in the system, and when new nodes are added to the cluster, this partitioning is altered so that data is spread onto the new node. Because of our workload assumptions (section 3.1), this horizontal partitioning evenly spreads both load and data across the cluster.

Given that the data in the hash table is spread across multiple nodes, if any of those nodes fail, then a portion of the hash table will become unavailable. For this reason, each partition in the hash table is replicated on more than one cluster node. The set of replicas for a partition form a replica group; all replicas in the group are kept strictly coherent with each other. Any replica can be used to service a get(), but all replicas must be updated during a put() or remove(). If a node fails, the data from its partitions is available on the surviving members of the partitions' replica groups. Replica group membership is thus dynamic; when a node fails, all of its replicas are removed from their replica groups. When a node joins the cluster, it may be added to the replica groups of some partitions (such as in the case of recovery, described later).

To maintain consistency when state changing operations (put() and remove()) are issued against a partition, all replicas of that partition must be synchronously updated. We use an optimistic two-phase commit protocol to achieve consistency, with the DDS library serving as the commit coordinator and the replicas serving as the participants. If the DDS library crashes after prepare messages are sent, but before any commit messages are sent, the replicas will time out and abort the operation.

However, if the DDS library crashes after sending out any commits, then all replicas must commit. For the sake of availability, we do not rely on the DDS library to recover after a crash and issuing pending commits. Instead, replicas store short in-memory logs of recent state changing operations and their outcomes. If a replica times out while waiting for a commit, that replica communicates with all of its peers to find out if any have received a commit for that operation, and if so, the replica commits as well; if not, the replica aborts. Because all peers in the replica group that time out while waiting for a commit communicate with all other peers, if any receives a commit, then all will commit.

Any replica may abort during the first phase of the two-phase commit (e.g., if the replica cannot obtain a write lock on a key). If the DDS library receives any abort messages at the end of the first phase, it sends aborts to all replicas in the second phase. Replicas do not commit side-effects unless they receive a commit message in the second phase.

If a replica crashes during a two-phase commit, the DDS library simply removes it from its replica group and continues onward. Thus, all replica groups shrink over time; we rely on a recovery mechanism (described later) for crashed replicas to rejoin the replica group. We made the significant optimization that the image of each replica must only be consistent through its brick's cache, rather than having a consistent on-disk image. This allows us to have a purely conflict-driven cache eviction policy, rather than having to force cache elements out to ensure on-disk consistency. An implication of this is that if all members of a replica group crash, that partition is lost. We assume nodes are independent failure boundaries (section 3.1); there must be no systematic software failure across nodes, and the cluster's power supply must be uninterruptible.

Our two-phase commit mechanism gives atomic updates to the hash table. It does not, however, give transactional updates. If a service wishes to update more than one element atomically, our DDS does not provide any help. Adding transactional support to our DDS infrastructure is a topic of future work, but this would require significant additional complexity such as distributed deadlock detection and undo/redo logs for recovery.

Figure: Distributed hash table metadata maps: this illustration highlights the steps taken to discover the set of replica groups which serve as the backing store for a specific hash table key. The key is used to traverse the DP map trie and retrieve the name of the key's replica group. The replica group name is then used looked up in the RG map to find the group's current membership.
\epsfbox[47 290 594 580]{metadata.eps} }

We do have a checkpoint mechanism in our distributed hash table that allows us to force the on-disk image of all partitions to be consistent; the disk images can then be backed up for disaster recovery. This checkpoint mechanism is extremely heavyweight, however; during the checkpointing of a hash table, no state-changing operations are allowed. We currently rely on system administrators to decide when to initiate checkpoints.

4.2 Metadata maps

To find the partition that manages a particular hash table key, and to determine the list of replicas in partitions' replica groups, the DDS libraries consult two metadata maps that are replicated on each node of the cluster. Each hash table in the cluster has its own pair of metadata maps.

The first map is called the data partitioning (DP) map. Given a hash table key, the DP map returns the name of the key's partition. The DP map thus controls the horizontal partitioning of data across the bricks. As shown in figure 3, the DP map is a trie over hash table keys; to find a key's partition, key bits are used to walk down the trie, starting from the least significant key bit until a leaf node is found. As the cluster grows, the DP trie subdivides in a ``split'' operation. For example, partition 10 in the DP trie of figure 3 could split into partitions 010 and 110; when this happens, the keys in the old partition are shuffled across the two new partitions. The opposite of a split is a ``merge''; if the cluster is shrunk, two partitions with a common parent in the trie can be merged into their parent. For example, partitions 000 and 100 in figure 3 could be merged into a single partition 00.

The second map is called the replica group (RG) membership map. Given a partition name, the RG map returns a list of bricks that are currently serving as replicas in the partition's replica group. The RG maps are dynamic: if a brick fails, it is removed from all RG maps that contain it. A brick joins a replica group after finishing recovery. An invariant that must be preserved is that the replica group membership maps for all partitions in the hash table must have at least one member.

The maps are replicated on each cluster node, in both the DDS libraries and the bricks. The maps must be kept consistent, otherwise operations may be applied to the wrong bricks. Instead of enforcing consistency synchronously, we allow the libraries' maps to drift out of date, but lazily update them when they are used to perform operations. The DDS library piggybacks hashes of the maps2 on operations sent to bricks; if a brick detects that either map used is out of date, the brick fails the operation and returns a ``repair'' to the library. Thus, all maps become eventually consistent as they are used. Because of this mechanism, libraries can be restarted with out of date maps, and as the library gets used its maps become consistent.

To put() a key and value into a hash table, the DDS library servicing the operation consults its DP map to determine the correct partition for the key. It then looks up that partition name in its RG map to find the current set of bricks serving as replicas, and finally performs a two-phase commit across these replicas. To do a get() of a key, a similar process is used, except that the DDS library can select any of the replicas listed in the RG map to service the read. We use the locality-aware request distribution (LARD) technique [14] to select a read replica--LARD further partitions keys across replicas, in effect aggregating their physical caches.

4.3 Recovery

If a brick fails, all replicas on it become unavailable. Rather than making these partitions unavailable, we remove the failed brick from all replica groups and allow operations to continue on the surviving replicas. When the failed brick recovers (or an alternative brick is selected to replace it), it must ``catch up'' to all of the operations it missed. In many RDBMS's and file systems, recovery is a complex process that involves replaying logs, but in our system we use properties of clusters and our DDS design for vast simplifications.

Firstly, we allow our hash table to ``say no''--bricks may return a failure for an operation, such as when a two-phase commit cannot obtain locks on all bricks (e.g., if two puts() to the same key are simultaneously issued), or when replica group memberships change during an operation. The freedom to say no greatly simplifies system logic, since we don't worry about correctly handling operations in these rare situations. Instead, we rely on the DDS library (or, ultimately, the service and perhaps even the WAN client) to retry the operation. Secondly, we don't allow any operation to finish unless all participating components agree on the metadata maps. If any component has an out-of-date map, operations fail until the maps are reconciled.

We make our partitions relatively small (~100MB), which means that we can transfer an entire partition over a fast system-area network (typically 100 Mb/s to 1 Gb/s) within 1 to 10 seconds. Thus, during recovery, we can incrementally copy entire partitions to the recovering node, obviating the need for the undo and redo logs that are typically maintained by databases for recovery. When a node initiates recovery, it grabs a write lease on one replica group member from the partition that it is joining; this write lease means that all state-changing operations on that partition will start to fail. Next, the recovering node copies the entire replica over the network. Then, it sends updates to the RG map to all other replicas in the group, which means that DDS libraries will start to lazily receive this update. Finally, it releases the write lock, which means that the previously failed operations will succeed on retry. The recovery of the partition is now complete, and the recovering node can begin recovery of other partitions as necessary.

There is an interesting choice of the rate at which partitions are transferred over the network during recovery. If this rate is fast, then the involved bricks will suffer a loss in read throughput during the recovery. If this rate is slow, then the bricks won't lose throughput, but the partition's mean time to recovery will increase. We chose to recover as quickly as possible, since in a large cluster only a small fraction of the total throughput of the cluster will be affected by the recovery.

A similar technique is used for DP map split and merge operations, except that all replicas must be modified and both the RG and DP maps are updated at the end of the operation.

4.3.1 Convergence of Recovery

A challenge for fault-tolerant systems is to remain consistent in the face of repeated failures; our recovery scheme described above has this property. In steady state operation, all replicas in a group are kept perfectly consistent. During recovery, state changing operations fail (but only on the recovering partition), implying that surviving replicas remain consistent and recovering nodes have a stable image from which to recover. We also ensure that a recovering node only joins the replica group after it has successfully copied over the entire partition's data but before it release its write lease. A remaining window of vulnerability in the system is if recovery takes longer than the write lease; if this seems imminent, the recovering node could aggressively renew its write lease, but we have not currently implemented this behavior.

If a recovering node crashes during recovery, its write lease will expire and the system will continue as normal. If the replica on which the lease was grabbed crashes, the recovering node must reinitiate recovery with another surviving member of the replica group. If all members of a replica group crash, data will be lost, as mentioned in Section 3.1.

4.4 Asynchrony

All components of the distributed hash table are built using an asynchronous, event-driven programming style. Each hash table layer is designed so that only a single thread ever executes in it at a time. This greatly simplified implementation by eliminating the need for data locks, and race conditions due to threads. Hash table layers are separated by FIFO queues, into which I/O completion events and I/O requests are placed. The FIFO discipline of these queues ensures fairness across requests, and the queues act as natural buffers that absorb bursts that exceed the system's throughput capacity.

All interfaces in the system (including the DDS library APIs) are split-phase and asynchronous. This means that a hash table get() doesn't block, but rather immediately returns with an identifier that can be matched up with a completion event that is delivered to a caller-specified upcall handler. This upcall handler can be application code, or it can be a queue that is polled or blocked upon.

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Next: 5. Performance Up: Scalable, Distributed Data Structures Previous: 3. Assumptions and Design