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USENIX, The Advanced Computing Systems Association

16th USENIX Security Symposium

Pp. 43–54 of the Proceedings

Language Identification of Encrypted VoIP Traffic:
Alejandra y Roberto or Alice and Bob?

Charles V. Wright, Lucas Ballard, Fabian Monrose, Gerald M. Masson,
{cvwright, lucas, fabian, masson}@jhu.edu
Department of Computer Science
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, MD, USA

Abstract

Voice over IP (VoIP) has become a popular protocol for making phone calls over the Internet. Due to the potential transit of sensitive conversations over untrusted network infrastructure, it is well understood that the contents of a VoIP session should be encrypted. However, we demonstrate that current cryptographic techniques do not provide adequate protection when the underlying audio is encoded using bandwidth-saving Variable Bit Rate (VBR) coders. Explicitly, we use the length of encrypted VoIP packets to tackle the challenging task of identifying the language of the conversation. Our empirical analysis of 2,066 native speakers of 21 different languages shows that a substantial amount of information can be discerned from encrypted VoIP traffic. For instance, our 21-way classifier achieves 66% accuracy, almost a 14-fold improvement over random guessing. For 14 of the 21 languages, the accuracy is greater than 90%. We achieve an overall binary classification (e.g., "Is this a Spanish or English conversation?") rate of 86.6%. Our analysis highlights what we believe to be interesting new privacy issues in VoIP.

1  Introduction

Over the last several years, Voice over IP (VoIP) has enjoyed a marked increase in popularity, particularly as a replacement of traditional telephony for international calls. At the same time, the security and privacy implications of conducting everyday voice communications over the Internet are not yet well understood. For the most part, the current focus on VoIP security has centered around efficient techniques for ensuring confidentiality of VoIP conversations  [3, 6, 14, 37]. Today, because of the success of these efforts and the attention they have received, it is now widely accepted that VoIP traffic should be encrypted before transmission over the Internet. Nevertheless, little, if any, work has explored the threat of traffic analysis of encrypted VoIP calls. In this paper, we show that although encryption prevents an eavesdropper from reading packet contents and thereby listening in on VoIP conversations (for example, using  [21]), traffic analysis can still be used to infer more information than expected-namely, the spoken language of the conversation. Identifying the spoken language in VoIP communications has several obvious applications, many of which have substantial privacy ramifications  [7].

The type of traffic analysis we demonstrate in this paper is made possible because current recommendations for encrypting VoIP traffic (generally, the application of length-preserving stream ciphers) do not conceal the size of the plaintext messages. While leaking message size may not pose a significant risk for more traditional forms of electronic communication such as email, properties of real-time streaming media like VoIP greatly increase the potential for an attacker to extract meaningful information from plaintext length. For instance, the size of an encoded audio frame may have much more meaningful semantics than the size of a text document. Consequently, while the size of an email message likely carries little information about its contents, the use of bandwidth-saving techniques such as variable bit rate (VBR) coding means that the size of a VoIP packet is directly determined by the type of sound its payload encodes. This information leakage is exacerbated in VoIP by the sheer number of packets that are sent, often on the order of tens or hundreds every second. Access to such large volumes of packets over a short period of time allows an adversary to quickly estimate meaningful distributions over the packet lengths, and in turn, to learn information about the language being spoken.

Identifying spoken languages is a task that, on the surface, may seem simple. However it is a problem that has not only received substantial attention in the speech and natural language processing community, but has also been found to be challenging even with access to full acoustic data. Our results show an encrypted conversation over VoIP can leak information about its contents, to the extent that an eavesdropper can successfully infer what language is being spoken. The fact that VoIP packet lengths can be used to perform any sort of language identification is interesting in and of itself. Our success with language identification in this setting provides strong grounding for mandating the use of fixed length compression techniques in VoIP, or for requiring the underlying cryptographic engine to pad each packet to a common length.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We begin in Section  2 by reviewing why and how voice over IP technologies leak information about the language spoken in an encrypted call. In Section  3, we describe our design for a classifier that exploits this information leakage to automatically identify languages based on packet sizes. We evaluate this classifier's effectiveness in Section  4, using open source VoIP software and audio samples from a standard data set used in the speech processing community. We review related work on VoIP security and information leakage attacks in Section 5, and conclude in Section  6.

2  Information Leakage via Variable Bit Rate Encoding

To highlight why language identification is possible in encrypted VoIP streams, we find it instructive to first review the relevant inner workings of a modern VoIP system. Most VoIP calls use at least two protocols: (1) a signaling protocol such as the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)  [23] used for locating the callee and establishing the call and (2) the Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP)  [25,4] which transmits the audio data, encoded using a special-purpose speech codec, over UDP. While several speech codecs are available (including G.711  [10], G.729 [12], Speex [29], and iLBC  [2]), we choose the Speex codec for our investigation as it offers several advanced features like a VBR mode and discontinuous transmission, and its source code is freely available. Additionally, although Speex is not the only codec to offer variable bit rate encoding for speech  [30, 16, 20, 35, 5], it is the most popular of those that do.

Speex, like most other modern speech codecs, is based on code-excited linear prediction (CELP) [24]. In CELP, the encoder uses vector quantization with both a fixed codebook and an adaptive codebook [22] to encode a window of n audio samples as one frame. For example, in the Speex default narrowband mode, the audio input is sampled at 8kHz, and the frames each encode 160 samples from the source waveform. Hence, a packet containing one Speex frame is typically transmitted every 20ms. In VBR mode, the encoder takes advantage of the fact that some sounds are easier to represent than others. For example, with Speex, vowels and high-energy transients require higher bit rates than fricative sounds like "s" or "f" [28]. To achieve improved sound quality and a low (average) bit rate, the encoder uses fewer bits to encode frames which contain "easy" sounds and more bits for frames with sounds that are harder to encode. Because the VBR encoder selects the best bit rate for each frame, the size of a packet can be used as a predictor of the bit rate used to encode the corresponding frame. Therefore, given only packet lengths, it is possible to extract information about the underlying speech. Figure 1, for example, shows an audio input, the encoder's bit rate, and the resulting packet sizes as the information is sent on the wire; notice how strikingly similar the last two cases are.

EN-101-story-8x6.png
Figure 1: Uncompressed audio signal, Speex bit rates, and packet sizes for a random sample from the corpus.

As discussed earlier, by now it is commonly accepted that VoIP traffic should not be transmitted over the Internet without some additional security layer [14,21]. Indeed, a number of proposals for securing VoIP have already been introduced. One such proposal calls for tunneling VoIP over IPSec, but doing so imposes unacceptable delays on a real-time protocol [3]. An alternative, endorsed by NIST [14], is the Secure Real Time Transport Protocol (SRTP) [4]. SRTP is an extension to RTP and provides confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity for real-time applications. SRTP allows for three modes of encryption: AES in counter mode, AES in f8-mode, and no encryption. For the two stream ciphers, the standard states that "in case the payload size is not an integer multiple of (the block length), the excess bits of the key stream are simply discarded" [4]. Moreover, while the standard permits higher level protocols to pad their messages, the default in SRTP is to use length-preserving encryption and so one can still derive information about the underlying speech by observing the lengths of the encrypted payloads.

Given that the sizes of encrypted payloads are closely related to bit rates used by the speech encoder, a pertinent question is whether different languages are encoded at different bit rates. Our conjecture is that this is indeed the case, and to test this hypothesis we examine real speech data from the Oregon Graduate Institute Center for Speech Learning and Understanding's "22 Language" telephone speech corpus [15]. The data set consists of speech from native speakers of 21 languages, recorded over a standard telephone line at 8kHz. This is the same sampling rate used by the Speex narrowband mode. General statistics about the data set are provided in Appendix A.

As a preliminary test of our hypothesis, we encoded all of the audio files from the CSLU corpus and recorded the sequence of bit rates used by Speex for each file. In narrowband VBR mode with discontinuous transmission enabled, Speex encodes the data set using nine distinct bit rates, ranging from 0.25kbps up to 24.6kbps. Figure 2 shows the frequency for each bit rate for English, Brazilian Portuguese, German, and Hungarian. For most bit rates, the frequencies for English are quite close to those for Portuguese; but Portuguese and Hungarian appear to exhibit different distributions. This results suggest that distinguishing Portuguese from Hungarian, for example, would be less challenging than differentiating Portuguese from English, or Indosesian from Russian (see Figure 3).

unigram-histogram.png
Figure 2: Unigram frequencies of bit rates for English, Brazilian Portuguese, German and Hungarian
unigram-histogram-2.png
Figure 3: Unigram frequencies of bit rates for Indonesian, Czech, Russian, and Mandarin

BP vs EN - bigrams
Figure 4: The normalized difference in bigram frequencies between Brazilian Portuguese (BP) and English (EN).
MA vs TA - bigrams
Figure 5: The normalized difference in bigram frequencies between Mandarin (MA) and Tamil (TA).

Figures 4 and 5 provide additional evidence that bigram frequencies (i.e., the number of instances of consecutively observed bit rate pairs) differ between languages. The x and y axes of both figures specify observed bit rates. The density of the square (x,y) shows the difference in probability of bigram x,y between the two languages divided by the average probability of bigram x,y between the two. Thus, dark squares indicate significant differences between the languages for an observed bigram. Notice that while Brazilian Portuguese (BP) and English (EN) are similar, there are differences between their distributions (see Figure 4). Languages such as Mandarin (MA) and Tamil (TA) (see Figure 5), exhibit more substantial incongruities.

Encouraged by these results, we applied the chi2 test to examine the similarity between sample unigram distributions. The chi2 test is a non-parametric test that provides an indication as to the likelihood that samples are drawn from the same distribution. The chi2 results confirmed (with high confidence) that samples from the same language have similar distributions, while those from different languages do not. In the next section, we explore techniques for exploiting these differences to automatically identify the language spoken in short clips of encrypted VoIP streams.

3  Classifier

We explored several classifiers (e.g., using techniques based on k-Nearest Neighbors, Hidden Markov Models, and Gaussian Mixture Models), and found that a variant of a chi2 classifier provided a similar level of accuracy, but was more computationally efficient. In short, the chi2 classifier takes a set of samples from a speaker and models (or probability distributions) for each language, and classifies a speaker as belonging to the language for which the chi2 distance between the speaker's model and the language's model is minimized. To construct a language model, each speech sample (i.e., a phone call), is represented as a series of packet lengths generated by a Speex-enabled VoIP program. We simply count the n-grams of packet lengths in each sample to estimate the multinomial distribution for that model (for our empirical analysis, we set n = 3). For example, if given a stream of packets with lengths of 55, 86, 60, 50 and 46 bytes, we would extract the 3-grams (55,86,60), (86,60,50), (60,50,46), and use those triples to estimate the distributions. We do not distinguish whether a packet represents speech or silence (as it is difficult to do so with high accuracy), and simply count each n-gram in the stream.

It is certainly the case that some n-grams will be more useful than others for the purposes of language separation. To address this, we modify the above construction such that our models only incorporate n-grams that exhibit low intraclass variance (i.e., the speakers within the same language exhibit similar distributions on the n-gram of concern) and high interclass variance (i.e., the speakers of one language have different distributions than those of other languages for that particular n-gram). Before explaining how to determine the distinguishability of a n-gram g, we first introduce some notation. Assume we are given a set of languages, L. Let PL(g) denote the probability of the n-gram g given the language L in L, and Ps(g) denote the probability of the n-gram g given the speaker s in L. All probabilities are estimated by dividing the total number of occurrences of a given n-gram by the total number of observed n-grams.

For the n-gram g we compute its average intraclass variability as:

Intuitively, this measures the average distance between the probability of g for given a speaker and the probability of g given that speaker's language; i.e., the average variance of the probability distributions PL(g). We compute the interclass variability as:

This measures, on average, the difference between the probability of g for a given speaker and the probability of g given every other language. The second two summations in the second term measure the distance from each speaker in a specific language to the means of all other languages. The first summation and the leading normalization term are used to compute the average over all languages. As an example, if we consider the seventh and eighth bins in the unigram case illustrated in Figure  2, then VARinter(15 .0 kbps) < VARinter(18. 2 kbps).

We set the overall distinguishability for n-gram g to be DIS(g) = VARinter(g) / VARintra(g). Intuitively, if DIS(g) is large, then speakers of the same language tend to have similar probability densities for g, and these densities will vary across languages. We choose to make our classification decisions using only those g with DIS(g) > 1, we denote this set of distinguishing n-grams as G. The model for language L is simply the probability distribution PL over G.

To further refine the models, we remove outliers (speakers) who might contribute noise to each distribution. In order to do this, we must first specify a distance metric between a speaker s and a language L. Suppose that we extract N total n-grams from s's speech samples. Then, we compute the distance between s and L as:

We then remove the speakers s from L for which D(Ps,PL,G) is greater than some language-specific threshold tL. After we have removed these outliers, we recompute PL with the remaining speakers.

Given our refined models, our goal is to use a speaker's samples to identify the speaker's language. We assign the speaker s to the language with the model that is closest to the speaker's distribution over G as follows:

To determine the accuracy of our classifier, we apply the standard leave-one-out cross validation analysis to each speaker in our data set. That is, for a given speaker, we remove that speaker's samples and use the remaining samples to compute G and the models PL for each language in L L. We choose the tL such that 15% of the speakers are removed as outliers (these outliers are eliminated during model creation, but they are still included in classification results). Next, we compute the probability distribution, Ps, over G using the speaker's samples. Finally, we classify the speaker using Ps and the outlier-reduced models derived from the other speakers in the corpus.

4  Empirical Evaluation

To evaluate the performance of our classifier in a realistic environment, we simulated VoIP calls for many different languages by playing audio files from the Oregon Graduate Institute Center for Speech Learning & Understanding's "22 Language" telephone speech corpus [15] over a VoIP connection. This corpus is widely used in language identification studies in the speech recognition community (e.g. [19], [33]). It contains recordings from a total of 2066 native speakers of 21 languages, with over 3 minutes of audio per speaker. The data was originally collected by having users call in to an automated telephone system that prompted them to speak about several topics and recorded their responses. There are several files for each user. In some, the user was asked to answer a question such as "Describe your most recent meal" or "What is your address?" In others, they were prompted to speak freely for up to one minute. This type of free-form speech is especially appealing for our evaluation because it more accurately represents the type of speech that would occur in a real telephone conversation. In other files, the user was prompted to speak in English or was asked about the language(s) they speak. To avoid any bias in our results, we omit these files from our analysis, leaving over 2 minutes of audio for each user. See Appendix A for specifics concerning the dataset.

overview-8x6.png
Figure 6: Experimental setup.

Our experimental setup includes two PC's running Linux with open source VoIP software [17]. One of the machines acts as a server and listens on the network for SIP calls. Upon receiving a call, it automatically answers and negotiates the setup of the voice channel using Speex over RTP. When the voice channel is established, the server plays a file from the corpus over the connection to the caller, and then terminates the connection. The caller, which is another machine on our LAN, automatically dials the SIP address of the server and then "listens" to the file the server plays, while recording the sequence of packets sent from the server. The experimental setup is depicted in Figure 6.

Although our current evaluation is based on data collected on a local area network, we believe that languages could be identified under most or all network conditions where VoIP is practical. First, RTP (and SRTP) sends in the clear a timestamp corresponding to the sampling time of the first byte in the packet data [25]. This timestamp can therefore be used to infer packet ordering and identify packet loss. Second, VoIP is known to degrade significantly under undesirable network connections with latency more than a few hundred milliseconds  [11], and it is also sensitive to packet loss [13]. Therefore any network which allows for acceptable call quality should also give our classifier a sufficient number of trigrams to make an accurate classification.

For a concrete test of our techniques on wide-area network data, we performed a smaller version of the above experiment by playing a reduced set of 6 languages across the Internet between a server on our LAN and a client machine on a residential DSL connection. In the WAN traces, we observed less than 1% packet loss, and there was no statistically significant difference in recognition rates for the LAN and WAN experiments.

4.1  Classifier Accuracy

In what follows, we examine the classifier's performance when trained using all available samples (excluding, of course, the target user's samples). To do so, we test each speaker against all 21 models. The results are presented in Figures 7 and  8. Figure 7 shows the confusion matrix resulting from the tests. The x axis specifies the language of the speaker, and the y axis specifies the language of the model. The density of the square at position (x,y) indicates how often samples from speakers of language x were classified as belonging to language y.

confusion matrix
Figure 7: Confusion Matrix for 21-way test using trigrams. Darkest and lightest boxes represent accuracies of 0.4 and 0.0, respectively.
CDF
Figure 8: CDF showing how often the speaker's language was among the classifier's top x choices.

To grasp the significance of our results, it is important to note that if packet lengths leaked no information, then the classification rates for each language would be close to random, or about 4.8%. However, the confusion matrix shows a general density along the y = x line. The classifier performed best on Indonesian (IN) which is accurately classified 40% of the time (an eight fold improvement over random guessing). It also performed well on Russian (RU), Tamil (TA), Hindi (HI), and Korean (KO), classifying at rates of 35, 35, 29 and 25 percent, respectively. Of course, Figure 7 also shows that in several instances, misclassification occurs. For instance, as noted in Figure 2, English (EN) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP) exhibit similar unigram distributions, and indeed when misclassified, English was often confused with Brazilian Portuguese (14% of the time). Nonetheless, we believe these results are noteworthy, as if VoIP did not leak information, the classification rates would be close to those of random guessing. Clearly, this is not the case, and our overall accuracy was 16.3%-that is, a three and a half fold improvement over random guessing.

An alternative perspective is given in Figure 8, which shows how often the speaker's language was among the classifier's top x choices. We plot random guessing as a baseline, along with languages that exhibited the highest and lowest classification rates. On average, the correct language was among our top four speculations 50.2% of the time. Note the significant improvement over random guessing, which would only place the correct language in the top four choices approximately 19% of the time. Indonesian is correctly classified in our top three choices 57% of the time, and even Arabic-the language with the lowest overall classification rates-was correctly placed among our top three choices 30% of the time.

In many cases, it might be worthwhile to distinguish between only two languages, e.g., whether an encrypted conversation in English or Spanish. We performed tests that aimed at identifying the correct language when supplied only two possible choices. We see a stark improvement over random guessing, with seventy-five percent of the language combinations correctly distinguished with an accuracy greater than 70.1%; twenty-five percent had accuracies greater than 80%. Our overall binary classification rate was 75.1%.

Our preliminary findings in Section 2 are strongly correlated to our empirical results. For example, rates for Russian versus Italian and Mandarin versus Tamil (see Figure 5) were 78.5% and 84%, respectively. The differences in the histograms shown earlier (Figure 2) also have direct implications for our classification rates in this case. For instance, our classifier's accuracy when tasked with distinguishing between Brazilian Portuguese and English was only 66.5%, whereas the accuracy for English versus Hungarian was 86%.

4.2  Reducing Dimensionality to Improve Performance

Although these results adequately demonstrate that length-preserving encryption leaks information in VoIP, there are limiting factors to the aforementioned approach that hinder classification accuracy. The primary difficulty arises from the fact that the classifier represents each speaker and language as a probability distribution over a very high dimensional space. Given 9 different observed packet lengths, there are 729 possible different trigrams. Of these possibilities, there are 451 trigrams that are useful for classification, i.e., DIS(g) > 1 (see Section 3). Thus, speaker and language models are probability distributions over a 451-dimensional space. Unfortunately, given our current data set of approximately 7,277 trigrams per speaker, it is difficult to estimate densities over such a large space with high precision.

One way to address this problem is based on the observation that some bit rates are used in similar ways by the Speex encoder. For example, the two lowest bit rates, which result in packets of 41 and 46 bytes, respectively, are often used to encode periods of silence or non-speech. Therefore, we can reasonably consider the two smallest packet sizes functionally equivalent and put them together into a single group. In the same way, other packet sizes may be used similarly enough to warrant grouping them together as well. We experimented with several mappings of packet sizes to groups, but found that the strongest results are obtained by mapping the two smallest packet lengths together, mapping all of the mid-range packet lengths together, and leaving the largest packet size in a group by itself.

We assign each group a specific symbol, s, and then compute n-grams from these symbols instead of the original packet sizes. So, for example, given the sequence of packet lengths 41, 50, 46, and 55, we map 41 and 46 to s1 and 50 and 55 to s2 to extract the 3-grams (s1, s2, s1) and (s2, s1, s2), etc. Our classification process then continues as before, except that the reduction in the number of symbols allows us to expand our analysis to 4-grams. After removing the 4-grams g with DIS(g) < 1, we are left with 47 different 4-gram combinations. Thus, we reduced the dimensionality of the points from 451 to 47. Here we are estimating distributions over a 47-dimensional space using on average of 7,258 4-grams per speaker.

confusion matrix
Figure 9: Confusion Matrix for the 21-way test using 4-grams and reduced set of symbols. Darkest and lightest boxes represent accuracies of 1.0 and 0.0, respectively.
CDF
Figure 10: CDF showing how often the speaker's language was among the classifier's top x choices using 4-grams and reduced set of symbols.

Results for this classifier are shown in Figures 9 and 10. With these improvements, the 21-way classifier correctly identifies the language spoken 66% of the time-a fourfold improvement over our original classifier and more than 13 times better than random guessing. It recognizes 14 of the 21 languages exceptionally well, identifying them with over 90% accuracy. At the same time, there is a small group of languages which the new classifier is not able to identify reliably; Czech, Spanish, and Vietnamese are never identified correctly on the first try. This occurs mainly because the languages which are not recognized accurately are often misidentified as one of a handful of other languages. Hungarian, in particular, has false positives on speakers of Arabic, Czech, Spanish, Swahili, Tamil, and Vietnamese. These same languages are also less frequently misidentified as Brazilian Portuguese, Hindi, Japanese, Korean, or Mandarin. In future work, we plan to investigate what specific acoustic features of language cause this classifier to perform so well on many of the languages while failing to accurately recognize others.

Binary classification rates, shown in Figure 11 and Table 1, are similarly improved over our initial results. Overall, the classifier achieves over 86% accuracy when distinguishing between two languages. The median accuracy is 92.7% and 12% of the language pairs can be distinguished at rates greater than 98%. In a few cases like Portuguese versus Korean or Farsi versus Polish, the classifier exhibited 100% accuracy on our test data.

CDF
Figure 11: CCDF for overall accuracy of the binary classifier using 4-grams and reduced set of symbols.

Lang. Acc. Lang. Acc
EN-FA 0.980 CZ-JA 0.544
GE-RU 0.985 AR-SW 0.549
FA-SD 0.990 CZ-HU 0.554
IN-PO 0.990 CZ-SD 0.554
PO-RU 0.990 MA-VI 0.565
BP-PO 0.995 JA-SW 0.566
EN-HI 0.995 HU-VI 0.575
HI-PO 0.995 CZ-MA 0.580
BP-KO 1.000 CZ-SW 0.590
FA-PO 1.000 HU-TA 0.605

Table 1: Binary classifier recognition rates for selected language pairs. Languages and their abbreviations are listed in Appendix A.

Interestingly, the results of our classifiers are comparable to those presented by Zissman [38] in an early study of language identification techniques using full acoustic data. Zissman implemented and compared four different language recognition techniques, including Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classification and techniques based on single-language phone recognition and n-gram language modeling. All four techniques used cepstral coefficients as input [22].

The GMM classifier described by Zissman is much simpler than the other techniques and serves primarily as a baseline for comparing the performance of the more sophisticated methods presented in that work. Its accuracy is quite close to that of our initial classifier: with access to approximately 10 seconds of raw acoustic data, it scored approximately 78% for three language pairs, compared to our classifer's 89%. The more sophisticated classifiers in [38] have performance closer to that of our improved classifier. In particular, an 11-way classifier based on phoneme recognition and n-gram language modeling (PRLM) was shown to achieve 89% accuracy when given 45s of acoustic data. In each case, our classifier has the advantage of a larger sample, using around 2 minutes of data.

Naturally, current techniques for language identification have improved on the earlier work of Zissman and others, and modern error rates are almost an order of magnitude better than what our classifiers achieve. Nevertheless, this comparison serves to demonstrate the point that we are able to extract significant information from encrypted VoIP packets, and are able to do so with an accuracy close to a reasonable classifier with access to acoustic data.

Discussion

We note that since the audio files in our corpus were recorded over a standard telephone line, they are sampled at 8kHz and encoded as 16-bit PCM audio, which is appropriate for Speex narrowband mode. While almost all traditional telephony samples the source audio at 8kHz, many soft phones and VoIP codecs have the ability to use higher sampling rates such as 16kHz or 32kHz to achieve better audio quality at the tradeoff of greater load on the network. Unfortunately, without a higher-fidelity data set, we have been unable to evaluate our techniques on VoIP calls made with these higher sampling rates. Nevertheless, we feel that the results we derive from using the current training set are also informative for higher-bandwidth codecs for two reasons.

First, it is not uncommon for regular phone conversations to be converted to VoIP, enforcing the use of an 8kHz sampling rate. Our test setup accurately models the traffic produced under this scenario. Second, and more importantly, by operating at the 8kHz level, we argue that we work with less information about the underlying speech, as we are only able to estimate bit rates up to a limited fidelity. Speex wideband mode, for example, operates on speech sampled at 16kHz and in VBR mode uses a wider range of bit rates than does the narrowband mode. With access to more distinct bit rates, one would expect to be able to extract more intricate characteristics about the underlying speech. In that regard, we believe that our results could be further improved given access to higher-fidelity samples.

4.3  Mitigation

Recall that these results are possible because the default mode of encryption in SRTP is to use a length-preserving stream cipher. However, the official standard [4] does allow implementations to optionally pad the plaintext payload to the next multiple of the cipher's block size, so that the original payload size is obscured. Therefore, we investigate the effectiveness of padding against our attack, using several block sizes.

To determine the packet sizes that would be produced by encryption with padding, we simply modify the packet sizes we observed in our network traces by increasing their RTP payload sizes to the next multiple of the cipher's block size. To see how our attack is affected by this padding, we re-ran our experiments using block sizes of 128, 192, 256, and 512 bits. Padding to a block size of 128 bits results in 4 distinct packet sizes; this number decreases to 3 distinct sizes with 192-bit blocks, 2 sizes with 256-bit blocks, and finally, with 512-bit blocks, all packets are the same size. Figure 12 shows the CDF for the classifier's results for these four cases, compared to random guessing and to the results we achieve when there is no padding.

Padding to 128-bit blocks is largely ineffective because there is still sufficient granularity in the packet sizes that we can map them to basically to the same three bins used by our improved classifier in Section 4.2. Even with 192- or 256-bit blocks, where dimensionality reduction does not offer substantial improvement, the correct language can be identified on the first guess over 27% of the time-more than 5 times better than random guessing. It is apparent from these results that, for encryption with padding to be an effective defense against this type of information leakage, the block size must be large enough that all encrypted packets are the same size.

Relying on the cryptographic layer to protect against both eavesdropping and traffic analysis has a certain philosophical appeal because then the compression layer does not have to be concerned with security issues. On the other hand, padding incurs significant overhead in the number of bytes that must be transmitted. Table 2 lists the increase in traffic volume that arises from padding to each block size, as well as the improvement of the overall accuracy of the classifier over random guessing.



Improvement
vs Random
none 0.0% 66.0% 13.8x
128 bits 8.7% 62.5% 13.0x
192 bits 13.8% 27.1% 5.7x
256 bits 23.9% 27.2% 5.7x
512 bits 42.2% 6.9% 1.4x

Table 2: Tradeoff of effectiveness versus overhead incurred for padding VoIP packets to various block sizes.
CDF
Figure 12: The effect of padding on classifier accuracy.

Another solution for ensuring that there is no information leakage is to use a constant bit rate codec, such as Speex in CBR mode, to send packets of fixed length. Forcing the encoder to use a fixed number of bits is an attractive approach, as the encoder could use the bits that would otherwise be used as padding to improve the quality of the encoded sound. While both of these approaches would detract from the bandwidth savings provided by VBR encoders, they provide much stronger privacy guarantees for the participants of a VoIP call.

5  Related Work

Some closely related work is that of Wang et al.  [31] on tracking VoIP calls over low-latency anonymizing networks such as Tor [9]. Unlike our analysis, which is entirely passive, the attack in [31] requires that the attacker be able to actively inject delays into the stream of packets as they traverse the anonymized network. Other recent work has explored extracting sensitive information from several different kinds of encrypted network connections. Sun et al.  [27], for example, examined World Wide Web traffic transmitted in HTTP over secure (SSL) connections and were able to identify a set of sensitive websites based on the number and sizes of objects in each encrypted HTTP response. Song et al.  [26] used packet interarrival times to infer keystroke patterns and ultimately crack passwords typed over SSH. Zhang and Paxson [36] also used packet timing in SSH traffic to identify pairs of connections which form part of a chain of "stepping stone" hosts between the attacker and his eventual victim. In addition to these application-specific attacks, our own previous work demonstrates that packet size and timing are indicative of the application protocol used in SSL-encrypted TCP connections and in simple forms of encrypted tunnels [34].

Techniques for autmatically identifying spoken languages were the subject of a great deal of work in the mid 1990's [18,38]. While these works used a wide range of features extracted from the audio data and employed many different machine learning techniques, they all represent attempts to mimic the way humans differentiate between languages, based on differences in the sounds produced. Because our classifier does not have direct access to the acoustic data, it is unrealistic to expect that it could outperform a modern language recognition system, where error rates in the single digits are not uncommon. Nevertheless, automatic language identification is not considered a solved problem, even with access to full acoustic data, and work is ongoing in the speech community to improve recognition rates and explore new approaches (see, e.g., [32,8,1]).

6  Conclusions

In this paper, we show that despite efforts devoted to securing conversations that traverse Voice over IP, an adversary can still exploit packet lengths to discern considerable information about the underlying spoken language. Our techniques examine patterns in the output of Variable Bit Rate encoders to infer characteristics of the encoded speech. Using these characteristics, we evaluate our techniques on a large corpus of traffic from different speakers, and show that our techniques can classify (with reasonable accuracy) the language of the target speaker. Of the 21 languages we evaluated, we are able to correctly identify 14 with accuracy greater than 90%. When tasked with distinguishing between just two languages, our average accuracy over all language pairs is greater than 86%. These recognition rates are on par with early results from the language identification community, and they demonstrate that variable bit rate coding leaks significant information. Moreover, we show that simple padding is insufficient to prevent leakage of information about the language spoken. We believe that this information leakage from encrypted VoIP packets is a significant privacy concern. Fortunately, we are able to suggest simple remedies that would thwart our attacks.

Acknowledgments

We thank Scott Coull for helpful conversations throughout the course of this research, as well as for pointing out the linphone application  [17]. We also thank Patrick McDaniel and Patrick Traynor for their insightful comments on early versions of this work. This work was funded in part by NSF grants CNS-0546350 and CNS-0430338.

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A  Data Set Breakdown

The empirical analysis performed in this paper is based on one of the most widely used data sets in the language recognition community. The Oregon Graduate Institute CSLU 22 Language corpus provides speech samples from 2,066 native speakers of 21 distinct languages. Indeed, the work of Zissman [38] that we analyze in Section 4 used an earlier version of this corpus. Table 3 provides some statistics about the data set.
Minutes
per Speaker
Arabic AR 100 2.16
Br. Portuguese BP 100 2.52
Cantonese CA 93 2.63
Czech CZ 100 2.02
English EN 100 2.51
Farsi FA 100 2.57
German GE 100 2.33
Hindi HI 100 2.74
Hungarian HU 100 2.81
Indonesian IN 100 2.45
Italian IT 100 2.25
Japanese JA 100 2.33
Korean KO 100 2.58
Mandarin MA 100 2.75
Polish PO 100 2.64
Russian RU 100 2.55
Spanish SP 100 2.76
Swahili SW 73 2.26
Swedish SD 100 2.23
Tamil TA 100 2.12
Vietnamese VI 100 1.96
Table 3: Statistics about each language in our data set [15]. Minutes of speech is measured how many of minutes of speech we used during our tests.
Last changed: 6 July 2007 ch